Midwestern State of the United States. It also comes from Indiana's territorial history. Later, the United States Congress passed a law to divide the Northwest Territory into two areas and called the western section Indiana Territory. In 1816, when Congress passed an enabling Act to begin the process of establishing Indiana's statehood, part of this territorial territory became the geographical area of the new state.
The first inhabitants of what is now Indiana were the Paleo-Indians, who arrived around 8000 BC, after glaciers melted at the end of the Ice Age. Divided into small groups, the Paleo-Indians were nomads who hunted big game, like mastodons. They created stone tools made of flint by chipping, cutting and peeling. The Archaic period, which began between 5000 and 4000 BC.
C., covered the next phase of indigenous culture. People developed new tools and techniques for cooking food, an important step in civilization. These new tools included different types of spearheads and knives, with different notch shapes. They made ground stone tools, such as stone axes, woodworking tools and sharpening stones.
During the latter part of the period, they built earthmoving mounds and garbage dumps, which showed that settlements were becoming more permanent. The Archaic period ended around 1500 BC. C., although some archaic peoples lived until 700 BC. The Woodland period began around 1500 BC.
C., when new cultural attributes appeared. People created pottery and pottery and expanded their cultivation of plants. An early group from the Woodland period called the town of Adena had elegant burial rituals, with log graves under earthen mounds. In the middle of the Woodland period, the people of Hopewell began to develop long-term trade in goods.
As the end of the stage approached, people developed a highly productive crop and adapted agriculture, cultivating crops such as corn and pumpkin. The Woodland period ended around 1000 AD. The historic Native American tribes in the area at the time of the European meeting spoke different languages of the Algonquian family. They included the Shawnee, Miami and Illini.
Later, they were joined by refugee tribes from the eastern regions, including the Delaware, who settled in the White and Whitewater river valleys. In 1679, the French explorer René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, was the first European to cross into Indiana after reaching present-day South Bend on the St. He returned the following year to discover the region. Soon French-Canadian fur traders arrived and brought blankets, jewelry, tools, whiskey and weapons to exchange for furs with the Native Americans.
In 1702, Sieur Juchereau established the first trading post near Vincennes. In 1715, Sieur de Vincennes built Fort Miami in Kekionga, now Fort Wayne. In 1717, another Canadian, Picote de Beletre, built Fort Ouiatenon on the Wabash River, to try to control Native American trade routes from Lake Erie to the Mississippi River. In 1732, Sieur de Vincennes built a second fur trading post in Vincennes.
French-Canadian settlers, who had abandoned their previous post because of the hostilities, returned in large numbers. Within a few years, British colonists arrived from the East and fought against Canadians for control of the lucrative fur trade. As a result, fighting between French and British colonists occurred throughout the 1750s. Indiana's Native American tribes sided with French Canadians during the French and Indian War (also known as the Seven Years' War).
With the British victory in 1763, the French were forced to cede all their North American land to the British crown, east of the Mississippi River and north and west of the colonies. Southern Indiana is characterized by rugged, mountainous valleys and terrain, which contrast with much of the state. Here, the bedrock is exposed on the surface. Because of Indiana's predominant limestone, the area has many caves, caverns and quarries.
Indiana is one of the 13 United States. States that are divided into more than one time zone. Indiana's time zones have fluctuated over the past century. Today, most of the state observes Eastern Time; six counties near Chicago and six near Evansville observe Central Time.
Indiana is home to several current and former military installations. The largest of these is the Crane Division of the Naval Surface Warfare Center, approximately 25 miles southwest of Bloomington, which is the third largest naval facility in the world, comprising approximately 108 square miles of territory. Previously, Indiana was home to two major military installations: Grissom Air Force Base, near Peru (realigned as an Air Force Reserve facility in 1999) and Fort Benjamin Harrison, near Indianapolis, now closed, although the Department of Defense continues to operate a large financial center there ( Defense Finance and Accounting Service). Indiana was home to two founding members of the National Football League teams, the Hammond Pros and the Muncie Flyers.
Another early NFL franchise, the Evansville Crimson Giants, spent two seasons in the league before retiring. The table below shows Indiana's professional sports teams. The teams in italics belong to the main professional leagues. Indiana has had great sporting success at the college level.
In men's basketball, the Indiana Hoosiers have won five NCAA national championships and 22 Big Ten Conference championships. The Purdue Boilermakers were selected as national champions in 1932 before the tournament was created, and have won 23 Big Ten championships. The Boilermakers and Notre Dame Fighting Irish have won a national women's basketball championship. In college football, the Notre Dame Fighting Irish have won 11 consensual national championships, as well as the Rose Bowl Game, the Cotton Bowl Classic, the Orange Bowl and the Sugar Bowl.
Meanwhile, the Purdue Boilermakers have won 10 Big Ten championships and won the Rose Bowl and the Peach Bowl. Missouri Valley Football Conference Southland Bowling League (women's bowling) Most Indiana counties use a grid-based system to identify county roads; this system replaced the old arbitrary system of road numbers and names and (among other things) makes it much easier to Identification of the sources of calls made to the 9-1-1 system. These systems are easier to implement in the northern and central parts of the state, crushed by glaciers. Rural counties in the southern third of the state are less likely to have networks and more likely to rely on unsystematic road names (for example, Crawford, Harrison, Perry, Scott and Washington Counties).
Our editors will review what you submitted and determine if they should review the article. Today, Indiana's economy is based primarily on services, manufacturing and, to a much lesser extent, agriculture. Its northern areas are in the mainstream of the industrial belt that stretches from Pennsylvania and New York to Illinois. Agricultural activity is most intense in the central region, which is located in the Corn Belt, which extends from Ohio to Nebraska.
Although Indiana is historically part of the north, many parts of the state show a character much like that of the south. This is largely due to the early colonization of the region by migrants from the south, which brought with them a deep distrust of the federal government. Many people in Indiana are proud of their own image, largely derived from the 19th century United States, which values hard work, is oriented towards small towns and medium-sized cities, and is interested in maintaining the prerogatives of local self-determination. It is no coincidence that the nickname of the Indian, Hoosier, remains a symbol in the country's tradition of a kind of homemade wisdom, ingenuity and folklore that date back to what is popularly considered to be a less hasty and less complicated period in history.
Indiana is part of the east-central lowlands that slope downward from the Appalachian Mountains to the Mississippi River. Most of the state's surface was modified by the action of glaciers, leaving behind a large amount of excellent soil material and extensive deposits of sand, gravel, glacial tillage and loess. The southernmost eroded southern part of the state gives way to the Central Plain, an extremely fertile agricultural belt with large farms, and then to the glacial lake basin and the mostly flat region of moraines (rocky glacial debris) of northern Indiana. The highest elevation is near the Ohio border, about 380 meters (1,250 feet) above sea level, while the lowest point, about 100 meters (330 feet), is in the southwest, where the Wabash River flows into the Ohio River.
About 90 percent of the earth is between 500 and 1000 feet (150 and 300 meters). The general slope and drainage pattern is to the south and southwest, although an almost imperceptible surge in the northeast forms a watershed between the St. The Wabash, the Ohio and the east and west forks of the White River are part of the Mississippi Basin. The Joseph River meanders into Lake Michigan, while in the east the Maumee flows northeast to Lake Erie.
The northern half of the state is dotted with many small glacial lakes, including several of the state's largest. A high percentage of forested land is privately owned, mainly by farmers. Among the dramatic features of the landscape are the Indiana sand dunes along Lake Michigan, most of which have been removed from the public domain by industry and private homes. This situation was somehow resolved with the dedication of Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore in 1972.
One of the most picturesque parts of the state is the mountainous south-central region around Brown County. Indiana has four distinct seasons and a temperate climate, usually escaping the extremes of cold and heat. In January, daily temperatures in Jeffersonville, on the Ohio River in the south, tend to rise from 20°F (about —6°C) to 40°F (about 4°C), while in South Bend, near Lake Michigan in the north, temperatures generally range from mid-10°F (about −9°C) to the lowest of 30°F (approximately −1°C). In July, temperatures in both the north and the south normally drop to mid-60°F (about 17°C) and rise to 80°F (28 to 32°C) every day.
Annual rainfall ranges from approximately 45 inches (1,150 mm) in the south-central region to approximately 37 inches (940 mm) in the north. Snow can fall over a six-month period and averages more than 20 inches (510 mm) per year, and cities along the northern border typically report more than 100 inches (2540 mm). The climate of northwestern Indiana is greatly modified by its presence downwind of Lake Michigan. The cold air that passes over the lake's warmer water in autumn (October to December) and winter (January to March) causes heavy rainfall, and snowfall in winter, especially, is several times greater than in other parts of the state.
In addition, average daily temperatures are warmer in autumn and colder in spring (April to June) as a result of this “lake effect”. Indiana is part of a belt of Midwestern states with an unusually high frequency of severe storms. Spring, with generally erratic and unstable weather, is the season with the highest number of tornadoes. The state of Indiana is the nineteenth state in the United States.
UU. State and is located in the Midwest region of the United States of America. With about 6.3 million inhabitants, it ranks 14th in population and 17th in population density. Indiana is ranked 38th in land area.
Indiana is a diverse state with urban areas and smaller industrial cities. It is known for the Indianapolis 500 Mile race, which is held annually during Memorial Day weekend, and for a strong basketball tradition, often referred to as Hoosier. Residents of Indiana are called Hoosiers. Indiana is bounded on the north by Lake Michigan and the state of Michigan; on the east by Ohio; on the south by Kentucky, which shares the Ohio River as its border; and on the west by Illinois.
Indiana is one of the Great Lakes states. The northern boundary of the states of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois was originally defined as a latitudinal line drawn through the southern end of Lake Michigan. Because that line would not provide Indiana with a usable facade on the lake, its northern border shifted ten miles to the north. The northern borders of Ohio and Illinois were also shifted from this original plan.
The 475 mile (764 km) long Wabash River divides the state from northeast to southwest and has given Indiana several major themes, On the Banks of the Wabash, The Wabash Cannonball and Back Home Again, In Indiana. The White River (a tributary of the Wabash, a tributary of Ohio) zigzags through central Indiana. The northwestern corner of the state is part of the Chicago metropolitan area and has nearly one million residents. Gary and the cities and towns that make up the northern half of Lake, Porter and La Porte Counties, which border Lake Michigan, are actually suburbs of Chicago that move on a daily basis.
Porter and Lake Counties are commonly referred to as the Calumet region. They are all in the central time zone along with Chicago. The Northern Indiana Commuter Transportation District (NICTD) owns and operates the South Shore Line, a commuter rail line that operates electric trains between South Bend and Chicago. Sand dunes and heavy industry share the shoreline of Lake Michigan in northern Indiana.
The South Bend metropolitan area, in north-central Indiana, is the trade center of the region better known as Michiana, reflecting the interconnection with neighboring Michigan. Fort Wayne, the second largest city in the state, is located in the northeastern part of the state. Northern Indiana is the site of one of the world's great ecological regions, the Indian Dunes, a huge complex of living dunes at the southern end of Lake Michigan. The dunes are a relic ecosystem that provides habitat for many rare species of plants.
The Kankakee River, which meanders through northern Indiana, roughly demarcates suburban northwest Indiana from the rest of the state. The state capital, Indianapolis, is located in the center of the state. It is the intersection of many interstate and American highways that gives the state its motto of The Crossroads of America. Rural areas in the central part of the state are usually composed of a mosaic of fields and forested areas.
Evansville, the third largest city in Indiana, is located in the southwestern corner of the state. It is located in a three-state area that includes Illinois, Indiana and Kentucky. The southeastern cities of Clarksville, Jeffersonville and New Albany are part of the Louisville metropolitan area. Southern Indiana is a mix of farmland and forest.
Hoosier National Forest is a 200,000 acre (80,900 ha) nature reserve in south-central Indiana. Southern Indiana's topography is more varied than that of the north and generally contains more hills and geographical variations than the northern part, such as the Knobs, a 1,000-foot series. Brown County is known for its rolling hills covered with colorful fall foliage in the fall, according to poet T, S. The former home of Eliot and Nashville, county seat and shopping destination.
The limestone geology of southern Indiana has created numerous caves and one of the largest limestone quarry regions in the United States. Many of Indiana's official buildings, such as the state capitol building, the downtown monuments, the Indiana University School of Law in Indianapolis and the Indiana Government Center, are examples of Indiana architecture made with the state's limestone. Most of Indiana has a humid continental climate, with hot, humid summers and cold to cold winters. The southernmost parts of the state border a humid subtropical climate with slightly milder winters.
Maximum summer temperatures average around 29°C (85°F) and the coldest nights are around 16°C (60°F). Winters are a bit more variable, but generally temperatures range from cold to cold. Most of Indiana averages above freezing, even in the coldest part of winter, except for the northernmost tip of the state; the minimum temperature is lower than 20° F (-8° C) in most parts of the state. The state receives 40 inches (1,000 mm) of precipitation per year across the state, in all four seasons, and from March to August it's slightly wetter.
The Algonquin tribes, mainly those of Miami and the Shawnee, fought to protect the land of the Iroquois when they moved west from New York. The Potawatomi and the Delaware also lived in what is now Indiana. The Saint Joseph River was a means of transportation for French fur traders, connecting Canada and Louisiana. Settlers from the south and east began to settle along the Ohio and Wabash rivers.
The French saw this as a potential threat and later built three forts: Fort-Miami (170); Fort-Ouiatanon (171) and Fort-Vincennes (173). The area was claimed for New France in 1763 and ceded to Great Britain as part of the agreement between the French and Indian Wars, prohibiting the entry of white settlements. In 1774, the Parliament annexed the land to Quebec. Native peoples and whites continued to fight until 1794, when General Anthony Wayne defeated the Indians in a battle near Fallen Timbers.
Indian resistance continued for several more decades as white settlements expanded, increasingly claiming native hunting and fishing land. The last major encounter was the Battle of Tippecanoe, led by General William Henry Harrison. The area became part of the U.S. Soon after, it became part of the Northwest Territory, then the Territory of Indiana, and joined the Union in 1816 as the nineteenth state.
Immediately afterwards, Indiana asked the federal government to expel Native Americans. In 1817, individual tribes began to give up their remaining land in exchange for reservations in Oklahoma and Kansas. This started with the Shawnee, Delaware and Wyandot. Soon, the Kickapoo, the Piankashaw and the Wea were forcibly expelled, followed by the Potawatomi, who were forced to march to Kansas in the middle of winter, on the Death Trail.
The Mississippi River and its tributaries (Ohio and Wabash) were the main outlet for the growing abundance of the Midwest. Access to navigable water was essential for economic development because there were few roads suitable for heavy transport in the early and mid-19th century. Since the costs of shipping goods to and from the east were almost prohibitive, Indiana advocated the construction of canals and invested in it. In 1826, Congress granted land adjoining the proposed Wabash and Erie canals.
In the ten years between 1840 and 1850, the counties bordering the canal saw a population increase of 397 percent; the more fertile, but more remote, counties saw an increase of 190 percent. The channel also brought emigration from Ohio, New York and New England to newly established counties in two-thirds of the state's upstate. Foreign immigration came mainly from Ireland and Germany. Later, the Wabash and Erie Canal was finally abandoned, as rail mileage increased.
Since 1964, when Indiana backed Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson over Republican Barry Goldwater, Indiana has favored the Republican candidate in the federal election. However, half of Indiana's governors in the 20th century were Democrats. Previously, Indiana was home to two major military installations, Grissom Air Force Base, near Peru (reduced to reservist operations in 1999) and Fort Benjamin Harrison, near Indianapolis, now closed, although the Department of Defense continues to operate a large financial center there.
Despite its reliance on manufacturing, Indiana has been much less affected by the decline in traditional Rust Belt manufacturers than many of its neighbors. In part, Indiana's economy is considered to be one of the most business-friendly in the U.S. This is partly due to its conservative business climate, low corporate taxes, relatively low union membership, and labor laws. The at-will employment doctrine is in effect, according to which an employer may dismiss an employee for any reason or without him.
In addition, Indiana's workforce is mainly found in medium and small cities, rather than in very large and expensive metropolises. This makes it possible for companies to offer slightly lower salaries for these skills than would normally be paid. In other words, companies often see Indiana as an opportunity to gain above average skills with lower than average salaries. Indiana is home to the international headquarters of the pharmaceutical company Eli Lilly in Indianapolis, as well as the headquarters of Mead Johnson Nutritionals, a division of Bristol-Myers Squibb, in Evansville.
Elkhart, in the north, also has a strong economic base for pharmaceutical products, although this has changed over the past decade with the closure of Whitehall Laboratories in the 1990s and the planned reduction of the large Bayer complex. Overall, Indiana ranks fifth among all of the United States,. States in total sales and shipments of pharmaceutical products and the second highest in number of biopharmacy-related jobs. The state is located within the Corn Belt.
Corn and its by-products, and feedlots for processing pigs and cattle are an important sector in Indiana's agricultural production. Soybeans are also an important cash crop. Its proximity to large urban centers, such as Chicago, ensures markets for dairies, egg production and specialty agriculture, including melons, tomatoes, grapes and mint. Most of the original land was not grassland and had to be cleared of deciduous trees.
There remain many parcels of forest that support a furniture manufacturing sector in the southern part of the state. In mining, Indiana is probably best known for its decorative limestone in the southern, mountainous part of the state, especially Lawrence County (the home area of Apollo I astronaut Gus Grissom). One of the many public buildings faced with this stone is The Pentagon, and after the attacks of September 11, 2001, the Indiana mining industry made a special effort to replace damaged walls with a type and cut of material almost identical to those of the original coating. There are also large coal mines in the southern part of the state.
Like most Great Lakes states, Indiana has small to medium-sized operating oil fields; its main location today is in the extreme southwest, although oil drilling rigs can be seen operating outside Terre Haute. Being centrally located, 60 percent of the United States can be reached in a day's drive from Indiana. The state has extremely accessible and well-maintained land, rail, water and air transportation systems. There are more than 680 airport facilities in the state.
Indianapolis International Airport serves the Indianapolis metropolitan area. Other major airports include Evansville Regional Airport, Fort Wayne International Airport (home to the 122nd fighter wing of the Air National Guard) and South Bend Regional Airport. The southern part of the state also has Louisville International Airport, across the Ohio River, in Louisville, Kentucky. Indiana has 10 different interstate highways, more than any other state in the U.S.
This system includes a total of 11,000 road miles. The number of intersecting roads in and around Indianapolis earned it the nickname the Crossroads of the United States. German is the highest reported ancestry in Indiana, with 22.7 percent of the population reporting that ancestry in the census. There are also many people who cite American (12.0 percent) and English (8.9 percent) descent, as are Irish (10.8 percent) and Poles (3.0 percent).
The Indiana Department of Education contains a Service Learning Division known as Action Without Borders, which uses service delivery as a means of education. In addition to regular classroom work, this program helps students from kindergarten to twelfth grade meet the needs of the community, while improving their academic skills and learning habits. Indiana colleges and universities attract the fourth highest number of out-of-state students in the country and the largest out-of-state student population in the Midwest. In addition, Indiana ranks third in the country when it comes to keeping high school seniors in the state, with Indiana colleges and universities attracting 88 percent of attendees.
The state's top higher education institutions include Indiana University, the Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, Purdue University, the University of Notre Dame, Indiana-Purdue in Indianapolis, the Wesleyan University of Indiana, Butler University, Ball State University, Valparaiso University, the Wabash College and DePauw The university among the many public and private institutions located in the state. The state of Indiana is located at coordinates 40.0° N, 86.0° W. Indiana shares its northern border with Michigan, eastern border with Ohio, southern and southeastern border with Kentucky and western border with Illinois. The total length of the limit is 1,696 miles.
Indiana extends more than 160 miles in an east-west direction and 280 miles in a north-south direction. Indiana got its name because the state was largely owned by native tribes, even after it was granted statehood. Beginning with the Battle of the Fallen Woods in 1794 and the Treaty of Greenville in 1795, Native American land titles to Indiana lands were extinguished by usurpation, purchase, or war and treaty. Indiana is currently implementing an extensive rail plan that was prepared in 2002 by the Parsons Corporation.
After statehood, the new government worked to transform Indiana from a border into a developed, well-populated and prosperous state, initiating significant demographic and economic changes. Other Indiana manufacturers include pharmaceuticals and medical devices, automobiles, electrical equipment, transportation equipment, chemicals, rubber products, oil and coal, and factory machinery. Several indigenous peoples inhabited what would become Indiana for thousands of years, some of which the U. George Rogers Clark led U.S.
forces against the British in the area during the War of Independence and, before becoming a state, Indiana was the scene of frequent Native American uprisings until the victories of Gen. . .